The great problems that beset peoples and citizens all over the world require great concreteness and effectiveness and cannot be solved without a democratic and independent UN!
NB: A FINANCIAL AUTONOMY OF THE UN WOULD BE FOR MANY VERSES NOT ONLY DESIRABLE BUT NECESSARY AND WOULD BE THE ORGANIZATION IN CONDITION OF BEING INDEPENDENT AND, THEREFORE, NOT CONDITIONABLE.
WITH AN INTERNATIONAL MULTILATERAL TREATY YOU SHOULD IMPOSE THE GLOBAL COLLECTION OF THE TOBIN TAX (taxation on all financial transactions to be managed in collaboration with all the national states whose income will go in part to each state and in part to the UN). AT THIS POINT YOU COULD BE CALLED “GLOBAL TOBIN TAX”. THE UN COULD THEREFORE ENJOY THAT INDEPENDENT AUTONOMY AND INDEPENDENCE FOR ITS DEMOCRATIZATION.
There have been many studies and proposals for UN reform which, however, have so far not followed up and which have been taken into account in the development of this hypothesis.
HYPOTHESIS OF THE UN IN THE THIRD MILLENNIUM
The current General Assembly should halve into two Chambers: one of Peoples and one of States whose powers will be defined by an international treaty and incorporated into a statute drafted and voted on by both chambers. Chamber of Peoples, an ”International Parliament” (United Nations Parliamentary Assembly) representing all world peoples with a distribution system of the number of representatives proportionate to the number of inhabitants of each state (see the European Parliament) and possibly considering other factors for a more balanced representation in what is supposed to be a true parliament with legislative powers, including budgetary matters and control of the executive bodies.
Chamber of States where all member states are represented, and everyone will have the right to one single vote in accordance with the principle of legal equality between states. This Chamber of States will enjoy legislative powers in the matters set for by the Statute, which will also indicate when a legislative resolution draft must be approved by both chambers.
The Civil Society Committee made up of 250 representatives of nongovernmental social organizations appointed by the NGO Conference with consultative status at the “Council for Social Economic Security” and by representatives of the 100 world metropolitan cities with the highest number of inhabitants. It performs an advisory function on all subjects and can issue recommendations. The decisions are taken by simple majority.
An administrative body: the General Secretariat for the bureaucratic administrative management of the whole system, and for implementing programs and policies approved by UN non executive bodies; it would also be an internal and international mediator. The representatives of this body shall be appointed by the two Chambers that draw up its Regulation.
An executive body: the “Security, Disarmament and Defence Council” created by using the positive experiences of the present Security Council, its representatives are appointed by the two chambers that also draw up its Regulation; it decides by simple majority in all matters, but for some particular matters set for by the Regulation and in particular for military interventions it decides with qualified majority of 2/3 of the parties entitled (no Council Member has right of veto). It has the duty of ensuring international peace and mankind safety against any military risk thanks to intervention and humanitarian assistance, using the following bodies, democratically appointed and managed:
• “Global Disarmament Agency” for a progressive and complete disarmament in all states (it could use the indications of the already existing “United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs” – UNODA.
• “Peace-keeping and Humanitarian Intervention Army” which works as peacekeeper between opposite parties and as deterrent to any disruption to international peace; it also operates as humanitarian intervention army in case of serious human rights violations and catastrophic events. (It may also use the experience gained by the current “Security Council” in the various peace-keeping and interposition operations).
Executive body: “Council for Economic-Social Security” created by using the positive experiences of the present ECOSOC; its representatives are appointed by the two chambers that draw up its Regulations; the local authorities representatives and the NGOs representatives with consultative status already belonging to ECOSOC will be invited to join the Council. It decides by simple majority in all matters, but for some matters set forth by the regulations it decides with qualified majority of 2/3 of the entitled parties. In addition to the commissions already present in the ECOSOC, it also has:
• an “International Agency for the Global Tobin tax management” active in all countries with their direct cooperation;
• an “Supranational Rating Assessment Agency” replacing the existing rating agencies;
• an “Supranational Institute for Libor establishment and control” replacing the British Bankers’ Association (Bba);
• an “International Institute for financial transactions control” that, through an “International Tax Register” prevents large tax evasion and avoidance;
• an “Monetary Agency for currency issue control” to stop the speculations in this sector and the so-called “war of currencies” and to prepare the transition to a new “world reserve currency” (single exchange currency for international transactions);
• a “Research Centre for a fair distribution of wealth” that, by following the economic-financial and technological evolution, reviews the principles of wealth social distribution and provides for concrete guidance on this matter, also drawing up a “UNIVERSAL CHARTER OF BASIC LABOUR RIGHTS”;
• a “Scientific Committee for Sustainable Development” that, through studies, researches and insights, supports the activities of the Council for Economic and Social Security.
Executive body: the “Council for Security and Environmental Sustainability” created on the basis of “United Nations Environment Program” (UNEP); its representatives shall be appointed by the two Chambers that draw up its Regulation. Also the representatives of environmental NGOs will be invited to join it. It decides with simple majority in all matters, but when it adopts binding decisions for all countries, in compliance with the Regulation, it needs a qualified majority of 2/3 of the entitled parties. It avails itself of:
• a “Scientific Committee for Environmental Safety and Sustainability”, which supports its activities through studies, researches and insights. Executive body: the “Council for Human and Peoples Fundamental Rights and for the promotion and respect of the World Regulation for Civil Coexistence” whose representatives are appointed by the two Chambers that also draw up the Regulation; the representatives of the NGOs appointed by the NGOs Conference, will be invited to join it with consultative statute (see the current ECOSOC), together with local authorities representatives. To carry out its audits, it may also use some “Independent monitoring committees”. (Among other things, it may also avail itself of the “UN Human Rights Council“ UNHRC) experiences. Two Indipendent Authority whose representatives are appointed by the two Chambers:
• “International Supervisory Authority on public and private information and communication” that supervises the media freedom in compliance with the fundamental rights and the ethical principles of conduct both in the field of information and communication, and plays an international anti-trust role (It may also base its activity on the UN, UNESCO resolutions and/or recommendations on this matter and on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and it may avail itself of an “International Police” specialized in this field, under the UN supervision, such as those operating in many countries under the name of “Postal Police”.
• “International Supervisory Authority for the Application of Scientific and Technological Research” that supervises the compliance with fundamental rights and ethical principles and can monitor public and private bodies in all states (It may also base its activity on the UN and UNESCO resolutions and/or recommendations dealing with the guidelines of the Center for Technology Foresight of APEC*).
Judicial body: the International Court of Justice to settle international disputes, the Court is independent and its members, appointed by the General Secretariat, must be elected by both Chambers which also approve the Court Regulation by taking into account that already in force.
An International Criminal Court to prosecute and judge people guilty of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and aggression crime. It is independent, its members, proposed by the General Secretariat, must be elected by both Chambers which also approve the Court Regulation according to that already in force at the current “International Criminal Court”.
An International Criminal Court against environmental crimes to prosecute and judge people responsible for environmental disasters; it is independent, and its members, appointed by the General Secretariat, must be elected by both Chambers that also approve the Rules of Court by taking into account the one already in force at the current “International Criminal Court”.
An independent Auditors’Court whose members, proposed by the General Secretariat, must be elected by both Chambers, which also approve the regulation according to that already in force.Of course, since all the UN general bodies are democratic, also all specialized institutions, agencies and organizations related to the UN and to its bodies must be consequently based on cosmopolitan democratic principles. Being the UN the only universal institution to promote the legal value of human rights at international level, its democratization supports the New Institutional Democratic Architecture project and furthermore effectively acts as ultimate guarantor of human rights all over the world.